作者：H. J. Grote, A. Roessner
Spontaneous malignant transformation of conventional giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is exceedingly rare. We report on a case of GCT of the iliac crest in a 35-year-old woman with malignant change into a high-grade osteosarcoma 10 years after the first appearance of GCT on a radiograph. Since the patient refused therapy for personal reasons the tumor remained untreated until sarcomatous transformation occurred. Image cytometry showed DNA aneuploidy and a suspiciously high 2c deviation index (2cDI) in the primary bone lesion. A thorough review of the world literature revealed only seven fully documented cases of secondary malignant GCT which matched the definition of a "sarcomatous growth that occurs at the site of a previously documented benign giant cell tumor" and not treated by radiotherapy. These cases as well as the current one suggest that a spontaneous secondary malignant GCT presents as a frankly sarcomatous tumor in the form of an osteosarcoma or malignant fibrous histiocytoma. It usually appears at sites of typical GCTs-often without any recurrent intermediate state-and is diagnosed 3 or more years after the primary bone lesion. The prognosis is poor.
作者：A.Bocking, Vu Quoc Huy Nguyen
ABSTRACT In the fight against cervical malignancy and its precursors, several adjuvant diagnostic methods have been proposed to increase the accuracy of cytologic and histologic diagnoses. Because chromosomal aneuploidy has been accepted as an early key event in tumorigenesis caused by genetic instability, the cytometric equivalent of chromosomal aneuploidy detected by DNA image cytometry (DNA-ICM) may serve as a marker of neoplasia. During the last decade, the appearance of a new generation of hardware with high processing and storage capacities, together with the development of appropriate software, has facilitated the development of high-performance DNA-ICM systems. International consensus on the clinical application of DNA-ICM has been reached. According to the statements of Task Force 8 of the International Consensus Conference on the Fight Against Cervical Cancer, indications for DNA-ICM include the identification of prospectively malignant cells in squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). The European Society of Analytical Cellular Pathology consensus reports on DNA-ICM have provided standardized technical details on performance, terms, and algorithms for diagnostic data interpretation and quality-assurance procedures. Increasing biologic evidence and clinical data have confirmed the utility of DNA-ICM as an adjuvant method suitable for determining the diagnosis and prognosis of cervical intraepithelial lesions and invasive carcinoma. Patients with ASCUS and low-grade SIL diagnoses that reveal DNA euploidy may return for normal screening intervals, whereas the detection of DNA aneuploidy indicates that these lesions should be removed. Formerly a research tool, today, standardized DNA-ICM has become a useful and low-cost laboratory method to establish objectively and reproducibly an early diagnosis of prospectively progressive cervical intraepithelial lesions at a high-quality level. DNA-ICM may further contribute to the monitoring of treatment in patients with invasive cervical malignancies.
作者：Sean SP Costello, Daniel G O Shea
"Objective The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy and acceptability of the Virtual Pathology Slide. Methods Ten breast needle core biopsies were randomly selected and presented to 17 pathologists or trainee pathologists with at least 2 years experience in pathology practice. Participants were required to examine each case online and provide a diagnostic classification using online feedback forms. The recorded data permitted examination of interobserver variability and user satisfaction. Results Agreement between original glass-slide diagnosis and consensus diagnosis using the Virtual Pathology Slide was reached in 9 out of 10 slides. Percentage concordance for slides lay in the range of 35.3% to 100% with an average percentage concordance between slides of 66.5%. The average Kappa statistics for interobserver agreement was 0.75 while average percentage concordance amongst participants was 66.5%. Participants looked at an average of 22 fields of view while examining each slide. Confidence: 81.25% of the participants indicated confidence using the Virtual Pathology Slide to make a diagnostic decision, with 56.25% describing themselves as ""reasonably confident,"" 18.75% as ""confident,"" and 6.25% as ""very confident."" Ease of use: 68.75% reported the system as ""easy"" or ""very easy"" to use. Satisfaction: 87.5% of participants expressed satisfaction with image quality, with 43.75% describing the image quality as ""adequate,"" 25% describing it as ""good,"" and 18.75% describing the image quality as ""excellent."" Pathologists with a working bandwidth greater than 20 kilobits per second found the download speed of the Virtual Pathology Slide ""adequate"" or better. Conclusions Results from this study show that the Virtual Pathology Slide can be used to make a correct diagnostic decision, and that the system is a realistic alternative to dynamic telepathology."